National Variants of English Pronunciation-реферат по английскому

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  • Тип работы: Реферат
  • Объем работы: 17 страниц
  • Год сдачи: 2017

Фрагмент работы

Готовый реферат по английскому языку на тему: National Variants of English Pronunciation. Объем 17 страниц, год сдачи 2017.Стоимость 200 рублей.


Introduction 1
National variants of pronunciation 2
Types of pronunciation in the UK 2
Welsh English 4
Scottish English 5
Northern Ireland English 6
Types of pronunciation outside the UK 7
Australian English 7
New Zealand English 10
South African English 11
American-based pronunciation standards 12
American English 12
Canadian English 14
Conclusion 16


The English language is spoken in a variety of ways. It’s the official language of the UK, the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and in a number of former British colonies. English spoken in these countries differs in vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation. The varieties of the language are conditioned by language communities. Speaking about the nations we refer to the national variants of the language, that is the language of a nation, the standard of its form, the language of its nation’s literature.
It’s important to distinguish between dialect and accent. Dialect refers to variations in vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation, while accent means a type of pronunciation, that is the way sounds, stress, rhythm and intonation are used in the given language community. Today all the English-speaking nations have their own national variants of pronunciation (and national pronunciation standards) and their own peculiar features that distinguish them from other varieties of English. National pronunciation standards are associated with radio and TV newsreaders and public figures. It is generally accepted that for the «English English» the national standard is «Received Pronunciation» (RP), for the «American English» — «General American», for the «Australian English» — «Educated Australian».
National standards are not fixed; they undergo constant changes due to various internal and external factors.
Within a national language there are a number of territorial or regional standards. Regional standards are used by most educated people in the region, and show a certain degree of deviation from the national standard. In Britain several groups of regional accents are recognized: Southern, Northern, Welsh, Scottish and Northern Irish. In the United States there are three major groups: Southern, Western and Eastern. Less educated people use numerous local accents which can be either urban or rural. For certain economic, political and cultural reasons one of the dialects becomes the standard language of the nation. This was the case of London dialect whose accent became RP.

Библиографический список

1. Allen B.H., Linn M.D. Dialect and language variation, Orlando, 1986
2. The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language / David Crystal. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
3. Coggle P. Do You Speak Estuary? – London: Bloomsbury, 2013.
4. Crystal D, 2003, English as a Global Language.
5. Gimson A.C. An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. – London: Edward Arnold, 1981 . – 312p.
6. Gimson A.C. Gimson’s Pronunciation of English. Sixth ed. / Revised by Alan Cruttenden. London, New York: Edward Arnold, 2001.


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